Allah accepted Adam’s repentance and forgave him. He then sent him to the earth as His first messenger.
Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Messenger sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “Adam and Moses argued with each other. Moses said to Adam: ‘Your sin expelled you from Paradise.’ Adam said: ‘ You are Moses whom Allah selected as His messenger and as the one to whom He spoke directly. Yet you blame me for a thing which had already been written in my fate before my Creation?” Allah’s Prophet Muhammad sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said twice, “So Adam outclassed Moses.” [ Sahih Al-Bukhari ].
‘Umar ibn Al-Khattab also narrated that the Prophet Muhammad sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “Moses ‘alayhis-salam said: ‘My Lord! May I see Adam who removed us and himself from the Paradise?’ So Allah made him see Adam and he said to him: ‘Are you Adam?’ Adam said: ‘Yes.’ And he said, ‘Were you the one in Whom Allah breathed His spirit and before whom He bowed His angels and to whom He taught the names of all things?’ Adam answered, ‘Yes.’ So Moses said, ‘What made you remove us and yourself from Paradise?’ Adam said, ‘Who are you?’ Moses said, ‘I am Moses.’ Adam said, ‘So you are Moses the prophet of the Children of Israel. Were you the one Allah spoke to directly?’ Moses answered, ‘Yes.’ Adam said, ‘Why do you blame me for a matter which Allah had predestined?’ ” So Allah’s Prophet Muhammad sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said twice. “Adam outclassed Moses.” [ Sahih Al-Bukhari ]
There are many traditions concerning the place of Adam’s descent upon earth. Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Ibn Abbas said: “Adam descended on the land
‘Dihna’ between Makkah and Ta’if.” Al-Hasan said that Adam descended in India and Eve in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia), Iblis in Bodistiman (Iraq), and the serpent in Asfahan (Iran). This last was also reported by Ibn Hatim.
Ass’adi related that Adam descended with the Black Stone (a large black stone set into the wall of the Ka’bah in Makkah. It is said to have come from Paradise) in India, and he had a handful of the seeds of Paradise. He sowed them in India and they grew into the fragrant tree therein.
Ibn ‘Umar said that Adam descended on as-Safa and Eve on Al-Marwa (names of two mountains in the vicinity of the sacred house in Makkah. Part of the rites of pilgrimage ( hajj ) includes pacing between these two hills in commemoration of Hagar’s search for water). This was also reported by Ibn Hatim. Abdur-Razzaq reported that Abu Musa al-Ashari said that when Allah ordered Adam to descend from Paradise to earth, He taught him the making of everything and provided him with the crops from Paradise.
Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Prophet Muhammad sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “The best of days on which the sun has risen is Friday. One this day Adam was created, and on this day he was descended to earth.” [ Sahih Al-Bukhari ]
Adam knew he bade farewell to peace and he left Paradise. On earth he had to face conflict and struggle. No sooner had one ended than another began. He also had to toil to sustain himself. He had to protect himself with clothes and weapons and protect his wife and children from the wild beasts. Above all he had to struggle with the spirit of evil. Satan, the cause of his expulsion from Paradise, continued to beguile him and his children in an effort to have them thrown into the eternal hellfire. The battle between good and evil is continuous, but those who follow Allah’s guidance and should fear nothing while those who disobey Allah and follow Iblis will be damned along with him.
Adam grasped all of this and with the knowledge of this suffering he started his life on the earth. The only thing that allowed his grief was that he was master of the earth and had to make it yield to him. He was the one who had to perpetuate, cultivate and construct and populate the earth. He was also the one who had to procreate and raise children who would change and improve the world.
The pinnacle of earthly bliss was reached when Adam and Eve witnessed the birth of their 1st children, a set of twins. Adam was a devoted father and Eve a contented mother. The twins were Cain (Qabil) and his sister. Later Eve gave birth to a second set of twins, Abel (Habil) and his sister. The family enjoyed the bounties and fruits of the earth provided by their Lord. The children grew up to be strong and healthy young adults. Cain tilled the land while Abel raised cattle.
The time arrived when the two young men desired life partners. This was part of Allah’s plan for mankind, to multiply and form nations with different cultures and colors. Allah revealed to Adam that he should marry each son to the twin sister of the other. Adam instructed his children according to Allah’s command, but Cain was displeased with the partner chosen for him, for Abel’s twin sister was not as beautiful as his own.
It appears that since the beginning of time, physical beauty has been a factor in the attraction between man and women. This attraction caused Cain to envy his brother Abel. He rebelled against Allah’s command by refusing to accept his father’s advice.
At first glance Cain’s rebellion might appear strange, but we should remember that although man has a pure nature, the potential for dichotomy exists. In other words, he had both good and bad qualities. He can become greedy, covetous, possessive, selfish and even destructive. Man is, therefore capable of seeking self-satisfaction even if it leads to failure in this life and in the hereafter. The path to goodness lies in harnessing the enemy within him, his baser self by controlling evil thoughts and deeds and practicing moderation in his desires and actions. His reward then will be the delights of this world and the hereafter. Thus Allah tests us through our divided nature.
Adam was in a dilemma. He wanted peace and harmony in his family, so he invoked Allah for help. Allah commanded that each son offer a sacrifice, and he whose offering was accepted would have right on his side. Abel offered his best camel while Cain offered his worst grain. His sacrifice was not accepted by Allah because of his disobedience to his father and the insincerity in his offering.
This enraged Cain even further. Realizing that his hopes marrying his own beautiful sister were fading, he threatened his brother. “I will kill you! I refuse to see you happy while I remain unhappy!”
Abel feeling sorry for his brother, replied, “It would be more proper for you, my brother to search for the cause of your unhappiness and then walk in the way of peace. Allah accepts the deeds only from those who serve and fear Him, not from those who reject His Commands.”
Abel was intelligent, obedient, and always ready to obey the will of Allah. This contrasted sharply with his brother who was arrogant, selfish and disobedient to his Lord. Abel did not fear his brother’s threats, but neither did he want his brother to be hurt, Allah had blessed Abel with purity and compassion.
Hoping to allay the hatred seething in his brother Abel said, ” My brother, you are deviating from the right path and are sinful in your decisions. It is better that you repent to Allah and forget about your foolish threat. But if you do not then I will leave the matter in the hands of Allah. You alone will bear the consequence of your sin, for the Fire is the reward of the wrong-doers.”
This brotherly plea did nothing to lessen the hatred in Cain’s heart, nor did he show fear of Allah’s punishment. Even familial considerations were cast aside. Cain struck his brother with a stone killing him instantly. This was the 1st death and the 1st criminal act committed by man on earth.
When Abel had not appeared for some time, Adam began to search for him but found no trace of his beloved son. He asked Cain about Abel’s whereabouts. Cain insolently replied that he was not his brother’s keeper nor his protector. From these words his father understood that Abel was dead and Adam was filled with grief.
Meanwhile Cain did not know what to do with his brother’s corpse. He carried it on his back wandering from place to place trying to hide it. His anger had now subsided and his conscience was saddled with guilt. He was tiring under the burden of the corpse which had started to have a stench. As a mercy, and to show that dignity could be retained even in death, Allah sent two ravens that began fighting, causing the death of one. The victorious bird used its beak and claws to dig a hole in the ground, rolled its victim into it and covered it with sand.
Witnessing this, Cain was overcome with shame and remorse. “Woe unto me!” he exclaimed. “I was unable to do what this raven has done, that is to hide my brother’s corpse.” Cain then buried his brother. This was also the 1st burial of man.
….. To be continue Inshaa Allah